The Impact of Agrarian Reforms on Rural Bourgeoisie and Urban Development in Kermanshah And Ilam

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student, Department of Political Science, Iranian Issues, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Iranian Issues, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran


Introduction and aim: Land reforms have a unique position. Agrarian reforms changed the status of other social classes such as merchants, traders and usurers. What is the most important effect of land reforms on the rural petty bourgeoisie of Kermanshah and Ilam? The answer to this hypothesis is that the rural artisan class was weakened after the land reforms. The reason for this was the entry of urban goods into the village.
Methodology: The research method is descriptive-analytical with using books, theses and articles. The first-hand sources are legal books and the second-hand sources are current researches and related articles, which have been used in publications and internet and research sites and researches related to the subject of the research.
Research findings: After analyzing the data obtained from the articles according to the causal conditions, mediating conditions, strategies and consequences of the phenomenon are categorized. These major categories and core categories have been extracted that it’s number of major categories is 22, and the number of major articles is 8, The theme of capitalist pressure, the number of articles 24, the number of major categories, the number of major articles 8, the theme of agricultural mechanization, causal conditions in the process of data analysis,((Commercialization of agriculture)), ((Transition from land ownership)), ((Emergence of modern lord and serf system)), ((Capitalist pressure)), ((Development of urbanization)), ((Oil)), and ((Low efficiency)) were the main categories of causal conditions.
Results: One of the characteristics of the land reform program in Kermanshah and Ilam was the adaptation of the land distribution to the traditional classification of the rural society. In this sense, some rural groups were called the well-to-do bourgeois. After the distribution of land between the farmers and the expansion of the relationship between the urban and rural society, the urban storekeepers became The consumption needs of the villagers were brought to the village and sold. Simultaneously with the growth of the peasant class, the class of rural workers also expanded, and a large part of the villagers who did not own land started working as laborers in other economic sectors. The decrease in the capacity of the agricultural sector in attracting the active forces of the rural community aggravated this problem and increased the number of unemployed people. These forces migrated to the city center and other regions in order to find jobs.


Hooglund, Eric. (2005). "The Khushnishin Population of Iran", Iranian Studies, No. 4, V. 16, 229-245.